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With its new UC series of ball bearing units, SKF has increased protection against contamination in heavy-duty applications.
Gothenburg, 17 June SKF is making further investments in strengthening its manufacturing footprint in China for ball bearings.
The latest version of Enlight ProCollect helps organisations improve lubrication management by planning detailed manual lubrication routines for factory equipment.
A new mobile tool - SKF Bearing Assist app, simplifies the process of mounting and installing bearings and can be used by everyone in a maintenance organisation.
The bond was issued in two tranches with SEK 2, million at a floating. Gothenburg, Sweden, May 29th, Guillermo E. Wälzlagerhersteller fertigt Gesichtsschilde für regionale Krankenhäuser.
Entwicklung und Erprobung in enger Zusammenarbeit. Our cash flow generation. By collaborating with wireless specialist LumenRadio, SKF has developed a new wireless sensor as part of a condition monitoring system for improving rotating equipment performance programs on a scale previously.
As of this quarter, SKF will report adjusted operating profit and operating. Carina joined SKF. SKF has released a compact and cost-effective vibration and temperature sensor for monitoring the condition of rotating parts on heavy industrial machinery.
Designed principally for use as part of an SKF. At SKF, we are doing all we can to maintain a safe working environment The income statements and the balance sheets.
Am März gehen von Uhr bis Uhr rund um den Globus die Lichter aus. Viele Städte hüllen ihre bekannten Bauwerke in symbolische Dunkelheit.
Auch SKF in Schweinfurt wird dabei sein. August auf dem As a result. Bearings within wind turbine generators are increasingly exposed to high frequency electrical currents, but can be protected by fitting insulated versions which even work under conditions of high humidity.
In Abstimmung mit dem Betriebsrat wurden für den Standort Schweinfurt. In einem spannenden Finale setzten sich das Nachwuchsteam As per 28 February, the Company.
Management und Betriebsrat einigen sich auf ein Zukunftspaket zur Steigerung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit. Belegschaft wurde in Betriebsversammlungen informiert.
We saw stable demand during the first half of the year. First tests were very satisfactory even though the vibration level-as expected - was again high.
The final component layout had to be optimized as well and this work launched an extensive second phase, on the test bench, in mobile test beds and with the first prototype.
Although a great deal of detail work would still be necessary, the transaxle passed its first major road test in Algeria with bravura that November,.
A mathematically determined capacity of just under five liters was the median value but all details were arranged to provide considerable leeway for adjusting the capacity up- or downwards.
Original thought tended more towards an increase to roughly 5. Since minimum weight was decisive, along with low construction height, a light metal unit was the only one considered.
The overall proportion of light alloy was to be large, based in part on rich experience with racing and the Since the friction relationship of alloy on alloy is poor, all solutions in this general field use a heavy metal: light alloy pistons run in a steel or cast iron liner set into the alloy block.
And since there is nothing new under the sun, Mahle and Porsche had already collaborated on a development in ! At that time a cc, four-cylinder Porsche engine was built without liners.
Instead the running surfaces were etched and fitted with chrome-plated pistons. This chrome layer prevented direct contact of alloy with alloy.
This was a reverse of principle: the pistons were "heavy" rather than the cylinder surfaces. This engine was clearly too far ahead of its time.
It ran for close to 12, miles but then produced problems: the chrome layer on the pistons scaled off. Since various problems went unsolved at that time the project wasn't.
The hour of a "reverse principle" which could do without steel or cast iron cylinder liners had not yet struck.
These tests did provide an interesting memory, however. In those days Porsche only had two test cars from the line, called "Windhund" and "Ferdinand" cars soon surrounded by legend.
But these two s were booked day and night for tests so they had preempted a VW beetle for further work, a car which entered Porsche history as "Adrian.
This consisted of an engine block in extra-eutectic aluminum-silicon alloy. After honing such cylinder walls are etched, allowing primary silicon crystals to stand free of their aluminum matrix to give a long-wearing surface.
Pistons, now running directly in the light alloy block, carry an iron or chrome layer, Eliminating the liners not only saves weight but also offers the advantages of simplified machining, Porsche had looked into the Reynolds reverse principle as early as on two different levels.
On one hand they carried out tests with an air-cooled engine and alongside these took up experiments with the water-cooled engine from the project. Results were impressive - the reverse principle was put into production on the air-cooled engine in the fall of but its chief application was to come with the This made it possible to design the upper housing in one piece, without liners, thus making it especially stiff despite a low weight.
A low-pressure casting procedure provided the necessary density. The housing was designed with a horizontal split at the level of the main bearings, allowing the lower portion of the case to be pressure-cast in a normal aluminum alloy rather than in the high-silicon version.
This might seem somewhat daring since different materials for upper and lower housings were once considered a problem area, particularly when it came to machining bearing webs and mounting the oil pump.
The decision taken by Porsche engineers to provide a simple oil groove in the separation face between the two halves of the housing rather than the customary drilled oil passages seemed even more daring.
This design detail promised control over neatness and a better flow pattern since passages could be provided with gentle radii in place of the usual sharp edges.
There was a considerable saving in machining too. But all this seemed advanced enough that test results were awaited with great interest In fact, this simultaneous machining of different materials never presented any serious problems once the tooling was optimized and an absolute seal at the interface was achieved by using bypasses and a modern silk-screen technique for the joint seal.
The five-bearing crankshaft was made especially rigid to achieve desired running silence while bearings were given generous dimensions with diameters of 2.
Non-alloy CK 45 steel was the chosen material with bearing faces of the 55 pound crankshaft tempered. Rotating and oscillating masses were fully balanced.
In the interests of good mass balance and to hold weight tolerances of the connecting rods within the tightest possible limits, rod design was given considerable attention.
They decided to develop a sinter-forged rod Test results were indeed outstanding. Alternating tension and compression tests produced clearly better results for the sintered parts than those for steel rods forged in a similar shape.
In designing the cylinder head engineers battled, as they had with so many of the car's components, with the most contrary demands, all of which had to be fitted into one concept: combustion with minimal pollution and low consumption, high performance efficiency, operation on normal fuel, plus low mechanical and thermic loads.
In addition they had to consider the guidelines for exterior engine dimensions. Aluminum heads were fitted with one overhead camshaft per bank and two overhead valves per cylinder, arranged in a row, A pent-roof combustion chamber was chosen with a squish zone opposite the spark plug which took up a good fifth of the piston area.
This design saved space and aided in reducing the height of the powerplant. The fact that it didn't follow classic higher-performance engine practices of hemispherical combustion chamber and valves in a vee demonstrated again the altered standards of current engine design.
In the shadow of ever-sharper emissions norms, an engine must be laid out to offer optimum efficiency in the median performance range with limited revolutions.
The inclination to a classic layout looses priority with any reduction in liter-output which must be compensated by increased capacity.
Extended service intervals and modest maintenance demands were key factors in the project book - they were attributes which stood alongside the long-term guarantee as key features of Porsche's philosophy for development, production and sales.
Hydraulic adjustment of valve play seemed a reasonable way to fulfill such requirements in the valve train realm.
It was once common to exclusive sedans such as Packard and meanwhile had become widespread on American cars. For the project where a hard-to-reach engine had to.
Thus the necessary experience was ready to hand although the actual design departed from usual paths by fitting the hydraulics to the cup tappets which were moving elements, An eleven pound spring in the center of the cup tappet was designed to balance out valve play increase or decrease, up to a working stroke of 0.
This worked perfectly in pretesting but a certain skepticism remained regarding possible peak revs since hydraulic systems had not proved too durable at such rpm figures.
Of course the wasn't designed for high rpm values as such since they were contrary to the basic concept which aimed at fulfillment of the stiffest emissions and noise regulations.
But since they desired a safety factor in this area as well, an interesting experiment was launched with the aid of the race department.
The projected hydraulic system was fitted to a four-cam version of the six-cylinder race engine and then entered in two events which settled the question once and for all.
On the brake this engine with hydraulic valve play adjustment even reached 8 rpm without the slightest trouble and all doubts were banished. Since ease of maintenance was another important requirement, cylinder head bolts were developed which would not require re-tightening after the first installation.
A well-developed bolt pattern, deep-seated studs and the favorable qualities of tapered upper cylinder bores allowed this achievement without secondary measures.
The bolts are first tightened to The engine need not be run between the two procedures. In that interval the torque figure decreases by roughly 7 Ib.
Later torque checks are unnecessary. This engine design also demanded good oil circulation since high lateral and longitudinal acceleration values were expected on the one hand while the hydraulic valve.
This led to large intake cross sections with the oil intake pipe mouth shielded upwards to avoid funnel formation, as well as an efficient sickel pump with sintered steel wheels plus altered balance and rerouting measures and a specially designed oil sump.
The use of a single cog belt to drive the camshafts, oil and water pumps offered intriguing possibilities.
It would not only shorten overall engine length but also allow a simpler and more rational superstructure. However they were entering new territory here since the layout demanded a belt of more than six and a half feet, far longer than any in general use.
Preliminary tests were indicated. Mixture preparation would be handled by continuous manifold injection while both a normal exhaust system and one with a catalytic converter US were planned for the exhaust side: either to be suspended from the central frame.
Possible later use of this powerplant in motor racing was envisioned from the first design stage and its demands studied. A memo in the file for 7 June notes: "In general, lightweight construction has taken precedence however it was realized too that success of this engine will depend to a large degree on rigidity particularly in view of the fact that a later sporting version will certainly become part of the program.
Additional forces accompanying an increase in rpms can be absorbed by selected materials as well as lightening the oscillating masses.
Breathing improvements would be necessary and achieved by increased dimensions for passages and valves which would also have to be inclined.
During the summer of work on parts which determined deadlines such as crankcase, crankshaft,. Priority was given to the crankcase since water distribution measurements had to be made prior to assembly.
A cog belt mock-up was constructed in August to conduct necessary advance tests of drive for the camshafts as well as oil and water pumps by means of a long, toothed belt.
Experiments with this mock-up ended positively and could be concluded with a hour endurance run in October. The 82 inch cog belt to serve four drive functions presented surprisingly few problems on test and could be finalized.
While the housing underwent water distribution measurements and basic testing other parts were arriving one after another and shortly before Christmas of Porsche could begin to build up the first complete engine.
The big moment came on 16 January when the first engine, a five-liter with carburetors, ran on one of the test brakes in the modern shops of Porsche's Weissach development center.
First bench tests of an all-new engine seldom last very long before something goes wrong and the was no exception. After a few minutes water splashed from the housing and the powerplant was shut down immediately.
What had happened? A crack had developed in the upper portion of the block, right in the middle of the vee, allowing water to penetrate to the outside as well as into the oil.
The source of this failure was soon traced. It came from excessive offset in the housing which was thus not up to demands.
Thereafter offset was sharply limited and once a block was cast to this standard the engine was again ready for operation on 5 March, surviving its first test cycle without failure.
The usual adjustment runs took place in the following week with no major problems cropping up. Thus the first full-load endurance runs could begin on 12 March, designed to provide information on any weak spots.
Another block crack- this time in the lower housing - caused this test to be broken off after only 25 hours. The endurance test could be restarted on 21 March with a reinforced lower housing and this time the new engine ran beautifully: by 3 May the pre-planned running time of hours had been achieved with hours of that under merciless full load.
Disassembly which followed provided valuable knowledge for further experiments but also confirmed that their basic design was on the right path.
In particular, the "daring solution" of a block split at the level of the bearings, using different materials and an oil groove, had surmounted all challenges.
Meanwhile the induction manifold injection system Bosch K-Jetronic was ready and rebuilding only took a few days.
On 11 May this engine ran for the first time with injection. By June K-Jetronic had been matched to the engine with good results and cold start experiments could begin in the climate chamber.
An interesting phenomenon cropped up here: shaft seizure during the warm-up phase. Examination showed that piston skirts of a type used before were not sufficiently elastic to accommodate the close tolerances chosen as a noise reduction measure and this led to the seizures.
This difficulty was overcome with more elastic, full-skirted pistons. Installation tests, important to later engineering work, now began on a full-scale nose mock-up and they also achieved a successful hour endurance run using K-Jetronic, as well as the first noise measurements.
Tests in conjunction with the transaxle unit, on the bench and installed in V 3 an Audi test chassis, have been mentioned. These concluded on 19 September, to end the initial development phase of the new engine.
Clutch and gearbox developments had run parallel to those for the engine. A generous two-plate clutch of 7. The five-speed gearbox naturally used proven Porsche synchromesh and was laid out as a direct-drive unit.
Cog sets and differential shared a one-piece housing of pressure-cast aluminum,. With project right in the middle of its actual experimental phase a fateful day dawned to throw all work and investment into question.
No matter how firmly an engineer may control his torque readings or lateral acceleration figures, he is helpless in the face of unforeseen external events.
But let us return briefly to the course of the project. In September Dr. Fuhrmann presented the latest styling stage to the partners and a few alterations were agreed upon while the basic form found ready approval from Board Chairman Dr.
Another presentation was held in July and design details were again discussed, particularly the integrated bumpers. It was agreed there would be a fast presentation on 19 November when the exterior shape and interior space would receive final approval.
Meanwhile, however, the Federal Republic of Germany along with many other lands was witnessing the spread of a trend which furrowed brows on the management floors of every automobile factory.
Using the catch phrase of poor life quality, politicians and citizen groups blasted the supposedly catastrophic consequences of an autodominated society.
An actual campaign against noise and pollution expanded to include damnation of traffic accidents and paving the landscape with roads and freeways.
They spoke of inner city destruction by personal transport and accused cars of being the scourge of society while lauding public transport on every side as the one mode deserving general support.
Automobile animosity in certain opinion-forming circles. A fourth war had broken out between the Arabs and Israel and a new weapon made headlines: the oil embargo triggering an energy crisis which had been in the air for some time.
Although this oil embargo had more psychological than actual impact, its effect was cataclysmic. Anti-car sentiment surged to the fore.
In view of speed limits designed to save gasoline and Sunday driving bans, automobile sales slackened just at a time when increased fuel prices boosted an already considerable inflation rate, Porsche was particularly hard-hit and production projections for the - only recently a best seller in wide demand - had to be considerably reduced.
Auto animosity and an energy crisis hardly stimulate sales of high performance cars. In this atmosphere Board and stockholders met on 19 November in the car delivery hall of the Zuffenhausen plant to evaluate the latest state of body design with integrated bumpers.
They were very satisfied with results and even drank a champagne toast to the successful job and its creators, However, they were also aware of standing on the threshold of a difficult economic era whose end could not then be predicted.
Fuhrmann voiced what was on every mind: "we know we are Many questions clamored for attention in the days to follow, particularly since the full effects of this shock only became visible in the new year.
Could they even justify the high investment of such a project? Did any sport car have a chance? Might it be wiser to fall back on a smaller and more notably fuel-saving car?
Would it be better to diversify into other products such as cross-country vehicles or motorcycles? Or should they start designing streetcars? Board and overseeing body made the only correct move in such a situation.
Major investment decisions were temporarily set aside but the project was pursued. Thus the experimental program suffered no grave interruption, although some limitations were unavoidable.
In any case, the result was to postpone the start of production although there was no question but that the project could be put through if a later, affirmative decision were made.
Meanwhile they would monitor economic and political trends and form a basic plan for checking all alternatives.
Those responsible had not lost their faith in sport cars nor in their own project and displayed the courage of their convictions. Despite the postponement of a major production investment they didn't abandon development, showing confidence that the winds would change.
During the following months crisis symptoms in the automobile industry became more and more frightening. Layoffs pyramided, production at most factories had to be cut back drastically, recession gripped the entire economy.
Before such a grim background completion of the first construction stage of the Weissach development center and celebration of "25 Years of Porsche" could hardly bring forth the high spirits such events normally evoke.
Meanwhile, a basis for decisions on possible alternatives had been worked out. To begin with they resurrected a target outline from the fall of which had not been pursued any further; the one calling for a four-seat Such a four-seater might appeal to a wider customer circle, thus offering a theoretically larger slice of the shrinking sport car cake.
Within a short time the studio provided new styling sketches, built 1 :5 models and finally produced a 1 :1 plasticine model for evaluation. Other alternatives were also explored which might reduce investment costs and make a smaller series viable.
These ran from a with improved technology, via a with both new technology and a new skin or a with new exterior and front-wheel drive, all the way to a using technology.
The objective was to use a maximum number of common parts and still find a promising solution for the future. Since fuel consumption was topic number one in , many pointers favored a smaller-capacity engine.
Against this, however, were ranked expected noise norms which that powerplant could only meet with expensive shrouding.
A number of other studies dealt with the supposition that production of customary sport cars would be drastically limited or entirely abandoned.
They debated the construction of various other vehicles such as cross-country passenger cars, recreational vehicles buggies or motorcycles. In addition, distribution which had been returned under the wing of the Porsche AG, headed by new board member Lars Schmidt, drew up a market prognosis which investigated changing conditions.
The marketing people showed cautious optimism. They predicted a return to increased sales for the car industry generally but felt that exclusive sport cars would slip slightly in terms of market share while showing an increase in absolute figures.
This theory was confirmed by an outside opinion from market analyst Prof. Berndt Spiegel who defined the greater driving pleasure inherent in sport cars as remaining desirable in the future while considering a general limitation of automobiles to pure utilitarian functions as highly unlikely.
He made a comparison with skiing and. Furthermore, Prof. Spiegel recommended a clear limitation to large market areas; thus, loyalty to a pure sport car concept.
In effect; he wasn't in favor of the four-seater. A decisive meeting of Board and stockholders took place on 15 November , roughly a year after both oil embargo and temporary approval of the Probably the most important decision Porsche had made in many years was characterized by confidence in the future.
A green light was given: the would be built in its original form and would go into production as a parallel model to the Thus the original concept was declared correct.
It had survived oil embargo, auto price increases and the recession without the need for basic rethinking. Apart from the operational delay which had no adverse effects.
Now the buyer could decide in whether the prognosis had really been correct. Then it would be clear whether those responsible for Porsche's destiny had bet their optimism and courage on the right car.
One concrete consequence did stem from all this. The question of whether it would be better in view of desired fuel economy to utilize the designed-in capacity span and reduce engine size received study.
They discussed 4. In January capacity was finally fixed at 4. Figures for the proposed 4. To properly understand further chapters in this development history we should cast a glance here at the various mobile test beds and prototypes used from right up to the opening of production.
V1 Mercedes SL served, as already described, during preliminary transaxle experiments and was used from July onwards.
At the beginning of V1 received the MB three-speed automatic with torque converter intended for the as well, and initial transaxle experiments were made, still using the original MB engine.
In July a final change to engine and front axle was madeV2 Opel Admiral was used for the first time in October for preliminary chassis tests. Front and rear suspension were made adjustable to optimize handling qualities.
In October basic research was initiated with a steerable rear axle when the problem of tuck-in under load change had to be solved.
V3 Audi Coupe became the first vehicle to test the complete drive line unit in September , using the platform and front section with altered wheel housings and suspension location.
This car was stretched to the necessary overall width by bulging fender extensions and taken on two major African tests as well as a Mont Ventoux mountain experiment.
At the beginning of it was converted to automatic gearbox. V4 Audi Coupe didn't receive wider fenders. Instead it was cut down the middle and widened overall by 4.
This vehicle had the entire platform, the five-liter K-Jetronic engine and transaxle with manual gearbox. It was used in chassis and engine tests from July of on.
V5 Audi Coupe corresponded in technical basics to V4 and as of the end of was used in chassis experiments, fitted with the ultimate rear axle although it did not yet have the control link, Munga was a bare chassis created in November and used for engine experiments.
It was given the name of Germany's army jeep in deference to its off-road looks. This airy vehicle was really only driveable to a limited extent but testers enjoyed it tremendously around the Weissach grounds, It had a five-liter carburetor engine and transaxle with racing gearbox from the Next came those actual prototypes which carried through the test program, beginning in , K 1 from January was the first of all prototypes, had a plastic skin and was only partially mobile.
It was used for body tests and functional testing of heater, vents and electrics, later for emissions tests on the chassis dynamometer.
Used for chassis testing. In addition it was used for tests and endurance runs in the climate chamber and on the rolling brake.
Performed winter tests on the Turrach with the first 4. Like W 1 technically, this car completed the first condensed-time endurance run at Weissach as well as acoustic and engine tests.
It was completed in time for the decisive meeting of Board and stockholders and formed the basis for their decisions. Good handling qualities were convincing.
Equipment: 5 liter K-Jetronic engine, transaxle with manual gearbox but improved rear axle with track rods for controlled self-steering. Both extremes are deprecated: the mean is the safest and the happiest, Horace, 'Carm.
Desunt multa; bene est, cui deus obtulit. Parca, quod satis est, manu. The gods most wisely thus their gifts accord,. Giving 'enough,' they amply give to all.
On frugal means without corroding care. Feed me with food convenient for me; literally, give me to eat the bread of my portion ; that which by God s providence is determined for me comp.
Genesis , which speaks of the portion assigned for the support of the priests; Job ; and below, Proverbs In the latter, bread for the needs of the coming day is meant; in our passage it is more indefinite, a casting one's self on the Divine love, in readiness to take what that love assigns.
Paul 1 Timothy , "we shall be therewith content. The reason for the latter prayer follows, unless, as some consider, the prayer is one, as if Agur asked, "Take from me riches which lead to vanity, and poverty which leads to lying and deceit.
Lest I be full, and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord Jehovah? Great wealth and temporal prosperity tempt to forgetfulness of God, to self-confidence and practical unbelief in Divine providence.
Like Pharaoh, the haughty rich man asks with scorn, "Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice? Deuteronomy , etc.
Septuagint, "Lest being filled I become false, and say, Who seeth me? And take the name of my God in vain. The verb taphas means "to grasp at, seize violently, handle roughly," and the sin intended may be either false swearing in denial of his theft and to escape punishment, or the arraignment of God's providence which has allowed him to fall into such distress.
Thus Isaiah , "They shall pass through it, hardly bestead and hungry; and it shall come to pass that, when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and curse their king and their God.
Accuse not a servant unto his master. Do not secretly bring a charge against a man's slave, and make his master suspicious of him; have a kind feeling for those in lowly condition, and do not render their lot more unbearable by insinuating false or frivolous accusations against them.
Ewald and others would render, "Entice not a servant to slander his master;" but there is no need so to take the expression, as the hiph.
Lest he curse thee, and thou be found guilty, and have to atone for it. The slandered slave imprecates a curse on his slanderer, and, as the latter has incurred vengeance by his word or action, the curse will not fall harmless Proverbs ; God's righteous retribution will overtake him, and he shall suffer for it.
First Proverbs come four generations that are evil—four being taken as the symbol of universality. The sins herein specified had become so general that they affected the whole generation.
There is a generation that eurseth their father. The words, "there is," are not found in the Hebrew, and the four subjects are without a predicate.
Delitzsch calls the group "a mutilated priamel," which is explained to be a kind of gnomic poetry containing a series of antecedents or subjects followed by an epigrammatic conclusion applicable to all the antecedents.
In the present ease the conclusion is wanting, so that we are left in doubt whether the author meant merely to de.
The first sin is that which offends against the commandment to honour and obey parents. This was judged worthy of death under the old Law Exodus ; see Proverbs , and note there.
And doth not bless their mother. This is a litotes , "not to bless" being equivalent to "to curse. A generation that are pure in their own eyes Proverbs The second characteristic is hypocrisy and Pharisaical self-righteousness see Luke And yet are not washed from their filthiness ; have not cleansed their heart by complete repentance, either because they have not examined themselves and know nothing of the real state of their conscience, or because they care nothing about it and will not regard it in its true light.
There is a similar expression in Isaiah A generation, oh, how lofty are their eyes! The third sin is pride and arrogance see on Proverbs ; Proverbs The prophet rebukes "the stout heart of the King of Assyria and the glory of his high looks" Isaiah Their eyelids are lifted up; in supercilious disdain.
A generation, whose teeth are as swords, and their jaw teeth as knives. The fourth evil is insatiable cupidity, which leads to oppression and injurious treatment of the helpless and poor, which makes men as cruel and remorseless in destroying others and despoiling them of their substance, as the very steel which they use in their operations.
Similarly, the psalmist speaks of his enemies as men "whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword" Psalms ; comp.
Isaiah ; Jeremiah To devour the poor from off the earth; i. Amos , "Hear this, O ye that would swallow up the needy, and cause the poor of the land to fail" comp.
Psalms Having spoken of insatiate cupidity, the writer now introduces four things which are insatiable. The form of the apothegm is climacteric, mounting from two to three, and thence to four, like the famous passage in Amos , etc.
Proverbs , though there is no special stress there laid on the last member of the climax; Job ; Job ; Ecclesiastes The horseleach hath two daughters, crying, Give, give.
The word "crying" is not in the Hebrew, which says, "The alukah hath two daughters: Give! Jerome sanguisuga. The word is derived from a root which in Arabic means "to adhere.
It seems simple and quite satisfactory to accept the word thus, and to see in the voracity of the leech an example of the greed further developed in the following clauses; but commentators have not been contented with this explanation, and have offered various suggestions which are either unnecessary or inadmissible.
Thus the Talmud considers alukah to be an appellation of hell, and the two daughters to be the Power of the world, and Heresy. Some of the Fathers regard it as a symbol of the devil and his dominion; others, as a personification of cupidity with its two offshoots avarice and ambition.
Some moderns deem it to mean a vampire or blood thirsty demon, a ghoul, in accordance with Eastern myth.
But, as we have said, such interpretations are unnecessary and unsupported by sufficient authority. The allusion to the tastes of the leech is found elsewhere.
Thus Theocritus, 'Idyll. Senati qui columen cluent. Ewald and others find traces of mutilation in this proverb, and endeavour to supply what is lost in various ways; but the text as it stands is intelligible, and needs no addition.
The rest of the verse is an application of the truth first stated. The type of cupidity there enunciated is instanced and exemplified in four special cases.
There are three things that are never satisfied. And then a corrective climax is addressed. Yea, four things say not, It is enough. The four in the following verse are divided into two plus two.
Septuagint, "The leech had three daughters dearly beloved, and these three did not satisfy her, and the fourth was not contented to say, Enough.
The four insatiable things are now named: first, the grave, sheol Proverbs , which can never be filled with its victims. Horace talks of a man as—.
The second thing is the barren womb; "the closing of the womb," as Genesis ; Isaiah The burning desire for children, characteristic of an Israelitish wife, is here denoted, like the passionate cry of Rachel to Jacob, "Give me children, or else I die" Genesis The barren woman, says Corn.
The more you heap on fire, the more material you supply, the fiercer it rages. Septuagint, "Hades, and the love of woman, and earth not satisfied with water, and water, and fire, will not say, It sufficeth.
This is an independent proverb, only connected with the preceding by being founded on an allusion to an animal. The eye that mocketh at his father.
The eye is named as the mind's instrument for expressing scorn and insubordination; it is the index to the inner feeling; and look may be as sinful as action.
And despiseth to obey his mother ; i. But etymology has led most modem commentators to give the sense of "obedience" see Genesis The ravens of the valley shall pick it out.
Such an undutiful son shall die a violent death; his corpse shall lie unburied, and the birds of prey shall feed upon him.
It is well known that ravens, vultures, and other birds that live on carrion first attack the eyes of their prey; and in our own islands we are told crows and birds of this sort will fix on the eyes of young or sickly animals.
Intestina canes, cetera membra lupi. His bowels dogs, his limbs the greedy wolves. Young eagles. The nesher must here mean one of the vulture tribe, as eagles do not feed on carrion but see Job Gregory 'Moral.
A proverb concerning four inscrutable things, connected with the last by mention of the eagle. There be three things which are too wonderful for me, yea, four which I know not.
The great point is the fourth, to which the three previous things lead up, all of them being alike in this, that they leave no trace.
The facts are marvellous; Agur feels like Job, "I have uttered that which I understood not, things too wonderful for me, which I knew not" Job The way of an eagle in the air.
You cannot by any outward sign know that an eagle has passed this or that way. The way of a serpent upon a rock.
The snake's mode of progression by the lever-like motion of its ribs might well awake surprise, but the point is still the tracklessness of its course.
On sand or soft ground its movements might be traced by the impression made. The way of a ship in the midst heart of the sea; i. You can trace a ship's course while she is near land or within sight, but when she reaches the open sea, you can follow her furrow no longer.
But this is feeble, and almah is without doubt rightly rendered "maid," "virgin. This is exemplified and confirmed in the following verse. It is not sufficient to refer the saying to the insidious arts of the seducer, by which he saps the principles and inflames the passions of his victim.
The sin of unchastity is signified, which demands secrecy and affords no token of its commission. Two of the above parallels, says Cheyne, are given in a quatrain of a Vedic hymn to Varuna—.
The soaring eagle's flight he knows. Some of the Fathers and earlier commentators, and among moderns, Bishop Wordsworth, have not been content with the literal sense of this gnonic, but have found in it, as in the others, deep spiritual mysteries.
Christ is the great Eagle Revelation , who ascended beyond human ken; the serpent is the devil, who works his wily way in secret, and who tried to pass into the mind of Christ, who is the Rock; the ship is the Church, which preserves its course amid the waves of this troublesome world, though we cannot mark its strength or whither it is guided; and the fourth mystery is the incarnation of Jesus Christ our Lord, when "the virgin almah conceived and bare a son" Isaiah , when "a woman encompassed a man geber " Jeremiah We can see the greater or less appropriateness of such accommodation, but the proverb must have been received by contemporaries only in its literal sense, whatever were the inner mysteries which the Holy Spirit wished to communicate thereby.
This verse is a kind of gloss or illustration of the last thought of the preceding verse, and seems not to have formed an original part of the numerical proverb.
It might well be placed in a parenthesis. Many commentators consider it to be an interpolation. Such is the way of an adulterous woman.
What Agur had said of a man above, he now applies to the practised adulteress, whose sin cannot be traced.
She eateth. This is a euphemism for the sin which she commits, "Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant" Proverbs ; comp.
And wipeth her mouth, as if to leave no trace of her illicit repast. And saith, I have done no wickedness. As she has sinned in secret, and there is no outward proof of her guilt, she boldly denies it.
Septuagint, "Such is the way of an adulterous woman, who, when she has committed the act, having washed herself, says she has done nothing amiss.
Then follows a proverb concerning four things which are intolerable, examples of incongruous associations or positions—two in the case of men, two in the case of women.
For three things the earth is disquieted ; better, under three things the earth doth tremble , as if oppressed by an overwhelming borden.
The form of expression does not allow us to think of an earthquake. Amos These four evils destroy the comfort of social life, uproot the bonds of society, and endanger the safety of a nation.
For a servant when he reigneth ; or, under a slave when he becometh king. This startling vicissitude was not uncommon in Eastern states; and even if the slave was not preferred to regal power, he was often advanced by unwise favouritism to high position, for which he was wholly unfitted, and which he used only to aggrandize himself at the expense and to the injury of others, This incongruity has been already noticed at Proverbs where see note.
And a fool when he is filled with meat. When such a one rises to high position, or has power over others, he becomes arrogant, selfish, unbearable comp.
Proverbs ; Proverbs ; Proverbs For an odious woman when she is married; or, under an unloved woman when she is married.
The sentence does not refer to an unbeloved wife, a Leah, becoming the favourite, a Rachel; the expression, "when she is married," can hardly have this sense; but the gnome speaks of a woman who has passed much of her life without love, having nothing about her attractive either in looks, attainments, or manner, and is consequently soured and ill-tempered.
If such a one does at last win a husband, she uses her new position to vex those who formerly depreciated her, and to make them as miserable as she cam And a handmaid that is heir to her mistress.
The maidservant that obtains her mistress's property, either by supplanting her or by right of inheritance, is supposed to make a bad use of it, to become conceited, arrogant, and odious to all around her.
There be four things which are little upon the earth , in contrast with the intolerable pretensions of the last group. The Vulgate has minima ; but the original is not superlative, which would not be true of some of the creatures named.
The Septuagint and Vulgate translate in the comparatives. The ants are a people not strong. The ant is proposed as an example to the sluggard Proverbs , etc.
He calls the ants a people, am , because they live in a community, and have authorities which they obey, and their actions are regulated by certain definite laws.
So Joel Joel calls the locusts a nation, and Homer 'Iliad,' 2. In countries where ants hybernate the object of this commended foresight is mistaken; but the statement, as that in Proverbs , is in accordance with the popular belief of the day, and serves well to point the moral intended.
We know certainly that in Europe these insects fill their nests with heterogeneous articles—grain, seeds, husks, etc; not as stores to be consumed in the winter, but for warmth and comfort's sake.
Scripture is not intended to teach science; it speaks of such matters phenomenally, with no attempt at a precision which would not have been understood or appreciated by contemporaries.
But in the present case more careful observation has confirmed the correctness of the asset. In countries where, ants do not hybernate, they do make granaries for themselves in the summer, and use these supplies as food in the winter months see note on Proverbs The conies are but a feeble folk.
The term "coney" cuniculus is applied to the rabbit, but this is not the animal here intended; and indeed rabbits are not found in Palestine.
The word shaphan designates the Hyrax Syriacus , called by some the rock badger. The coney, says Dr.
Geikie 'Holy Land and Bible,' 2. It is of the size of the rabbit, but belongs to a very different order of animals, being placed by naturalists between the hippopotamus and rhinoceros.
Its soft fur is brownish-grey over the back, with long black hairs rising through this lighter coat, and is almost white on the stomach; the tail is very short.
The Jews, who were not scientific, deceived by the motion of its jaws in eating, which is exactly like that of ruminant animals, fancied it chewed the cud, though it did not divide the hoof, and so they put its flesh amidst that which was forbidden.
It lives in companies, and chooses a ready-made cleft in the rocks for its home, so that, though the conies are but a 'feeble folk,' their refuge in the rocks gives them a security beyond that of stronger creatures.
They are, moreover, 'exceeding wise,' so that it is very hard to capture one. Indeed, they are said, on high authority, to have sentries regularly placed on the look out while the rest are feeding; a squeak from the watchman sufficing to send the flock scudding to their holes like rabbits.
The coney is found in many parts of Palestine, from Lebanon to the Dead Sea. This fact is noticed in Psalms This notion of the animal as a kind of little pig is not more accurate than that of St.
Jerome, who renders the term by lepusculus. The locusts have no king Proverbs , yet they show discipline, guidance, and order.
They go forth all of them by bands; so that Joel Joel , Joel speaks of them as a well-ordered army, as it were men of war, marching every one on his ways, not entangling their ranks, walking every one in his path.
Septuagint, "The locusts are without a king, yet march at one command in good order. The spider taketh hold with her hands.
Semamith or shemamith is some sort of lizard, probably the gecko. The Authorized Version alludes either to its fanlike foot, which enables it to run up walls and to cling to ceilings, or to its power of exuding from its feet a certain poisonous humour by which it catches flies and other insects.
But the above translation, as well as that of the Septuagint and the Vulgate manibus nititur , is incorrect, The first line, in accordance with the method pursued in the three cases previously, ought to give some expression denoting weakness or littleness, whereas by the above rendering it is rather strength and activity that are signified.
The translation therefore should run, as in the Revised Version margin, "The lizard thou canst seize with thy hand," and yet it is in king's palaces.
Small as it is, and easy to catch and crush, it is agile and clever enough to make its way into the very palace of the king, and to dwell there.
Gregory takes the lizard as the type of the simple, earnest man, who often succeeds better than the clever. Whereas, then, 'the lizard climbeth with his hands,' he 'is in kings' palaces;' in that the plain man, by earnestness of right practice, reaches that point whereunto the man of ability never mounts" 'Moral.
The ancient expositors see in these verses a presentation of the Church of God, weak on its human side and despised by men, yet exceeding wise 1 Corinthians —like the ant, laying up treasure in heaven, providing for death and eternity; like the coney, making the Rock her refuge; like the locusts, moving forward a mighty army in battle array; like the lizard, active in movement, holding the truth tenaciously, and dwelling in the palace of the great King.
There be three things which go well rob ; are of stately and majestic carriage. Comely in going; "stately in going. A lion which is strongest among beasts.
The word here used for "lion," laish , occurs elsewhere only in Job and Isaiah Turneth not away for any; Septuagint, "turneth not away, nor feareth any beast.
In post-biblical Hebrew zarzir is found as the name of some pugnacious bird, and the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Syriac call it here the cock.
So also Aquila and Theodotion. But if the word is onomatopoetic, it would seem to apply with more propriety to one of the raven tribe; and then what is to be made of the allusion to the loins?
And how comes it that amid the quadrupeds in the gnome a bird should suddenly be introduced, as one stately in going? It seems certain that some quadruped is here meant, but what?
What animal has as characteristic tight-girded loins or slender or active loins? There are, indeed, many that might be so designated, but none that, as far as we know, appropriated this unique appellation.
Hence various opinions are held by commentators concerning the identification. The zebra, say some, with its stripes, which may be thus denoted; the war horse, say others, comparing Job , Job , and considering the trappings with which, as we see in ancient sculptures, he was adorned; others, again, fix upon the leopard as the beast intended.
But that of the Authorized Version seems, on the whole, to be the most likely rendering, the slender, agile make of the greyhound having given cause for the appropriation of the term used in the text.
Delitzsch compares the German word windspiel , which designates the greyhound without the necessity of using the full term, wiadspielhund.
The only points which may be considered adverse to this view are these two, viz. Agur may be referring to what he has seen elsewhere, but what was well known to these for whom he wrote.
Gesenius suggests , "a warrior girt in the loins," which is adopted by Wordsworth, and gives a suitable idea.
This would correspond with the king in the last line; but the interpretation is quite arbitrary, and supported by no ancient authority, resting on the fact that girding the loins is always spoken of human beings.
The cock strutting among his hens is, as we have hinted, the idea which approves itself to many ancient translators. We are not disposed to adept this identification, more especially as common poultry were unknown in Palestine till long after Solomon's time.
Certainly what we call cocks and hens, or barn door fowls, are never mentioned in the Old Testament. The latest editors decide for the war horse; but the conflicting claims cannot be reconciled, and the matter must be left undetermined.
An he goat also. This is a very natural comparison, as the stately manner in which the he goat tay-ish , "the butter" heads the flock has been always observed.
We see them everywhere on the mountains, in smaller or larger numbers; at times also along with sheep, as one flock, in which ease it is usually a he goat that is the special leader of the whole, walking before it as gravely as a sexton before the white flock of a church choir" Geikie, 'Holy Land,' A king, against whom there is no rising up; Vulgate, nec est rex qui resistat ei , which ought to mean "and a king whom nothing resists," but can scarcely be compelled to produce this meaning without violence.
To some it has seemed that a proper name was intended, and they have invented a King Alkum or Alkimos, whom they suppose to have been celebrated in or after Solomon's time.
Many modern commentators take the word to be an Arabic expression, consisting of al , the definite article, and kum , "people," and consider the meaning to be "a king with whom is the people," i.
This is certainly a stately sight, and may well stand parallel to the hero lion among beasts, and the bold he goat at the head of the flock.
Other Arabic expressions may probably be found elsewhere in this chapter; e. Job , Job , Job , aluka , etc. Agur's last proverb, exhorting to discreet demeanour.
If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself Numbers If thou hast had the folly to be arrogant, proud, and overbearing in conduct. Or if thou hast thought evil, lay thine hand upon thy mouth.
The verb zamam , though possibly used in a bad sense, "to devise evil," is more suitably rendered "to meditate," "purpose;" so here it is the thought of lifting up one's self that is censured, the act and the thought being contrasted.
Hast thou acted arrogantly, or even only meditated doing so, restrain yourself, keep silence Job ; Job Jerome gives a different rendering, enforcing another lesson, "There is one who shows himself a fool after he is raised to high position; if he had had understanding, he would have laid his hand on his mouth.
But he will appear a fool when lifted up on high, because he will fail in his very loftiness through the coming of the true Judge. But if he had understood this, he would have laid his hand on his mouth; that is, if he had foreseen his punishment, when he began to be proud, having been once fashioned aright, he would not have been raised up to the boastfulness of such great pride" Oxford transl.
Surely the churning of milk bringeth forth butter. The same word, mits , is used for "churning," "wringing," and "forcing;" it means "pressure" in all the cases, though with a different application.
At the present day milk is churned in the East by enclosing it in a leathern bottle, which is then suspended in the air and jerked to and fro till the butter is produced.
This process could scarcely be called "pressure," though, possibly, the squeezing of the udder is meant, as the Septuagint and Vulgate take it.
But most probably the reference is to cheese, the term used, chemah , being applied indifferently to curdled milk and cheese. To produce this substance, the curdled milk is put into little baskets of rush or palm leaves, tied closely, and then pressed under heavy stones.
What the proverb says is that, as the pressure applied to milk produces cheese, and as pressure applied to the nose brings blood, so the pressure of wrath bringeth forth strife; the irritation and provocation of anger occasion quarrels and contentions.
They say in Malabar, remarks Lane, "Anger is a stone cast into a wasp's nest. Some of the Fathers, commenting on the Vulgate rendering Qui fortiter premit ubera ad eliciendum lac, exprimit butyrum; et qui vehementer emungit, elicit sanguinem , apply the passage to the handling of the Word of God.
Thus St Gregory 'Moral. For we 'press the udder strongly' when we weigh with minute understanding the word of sacred revelation, by which way of pressing whilst we seek milk, we find butter, because, whilst we seek to be fed with but a little insight, we are anointed with the abundance of interior richness.
Which, nevertheless, we ought neither to do too much, nor at all times, lest, while milk is sought for from the udder, there should follow blood.
For very often, persons, whilst they sift the words of sacred revelation more than they ought, fall into a carnal apprehension. For 'he draws forth blood who wringeth violently.
The weary search for God. The man's saying, I have wearied myself about God, wearied myself about God—then did I withdraw!
Agur appears to have lived far away from the borders of the favoured land of Israel. If he was a Jew, he was one in exile, separated from the home of his people.
If he was an Ishmaelite, he was even outside the covenant of Israel, and in that case we have the striking picture of an Arab of antiquity anticipating Mahomet in breaking from the idolatry of his fathers.
Like Balsam, like Job, this resident in a heathen land looks up to the true God. Paul spoke to the Athenians of those who could "seek God, if haply they might feel after him, and find him" Acts ; and St.
Peter could acknowledge God's acceptance of all who look to him truly, no matter what race they might belong to Acts The natural search of the soul for God springs from certain great fundamental facts, viz.
God is the Father of all men. All men need God. All men are separated from God by sin, and therefore must feel naturally at a distance. The world needs God.
But the world has lost God. Hence the natural search for God. This is not the weariness of protracted thinking, the reaction from high mental tension.
It is worse than that; it is the weariness of a long and apparently fruitless search. Man cannot by searching find out God. Wohnmobilen zu den Wochenendveranstaltungen anreisen, müssen ausreichend Wohnwagenstellplätze mit entsprechender Infrastruktur Strom- bzw.
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